The goal of this document is to offer a concise list of science-based principles to guide deployment of natural climate solutions (NCS) at national and sub-national jurisdictions. The audience includes public policy makers, the private sector, non-government organizations, and donors, all of whom have expectations that NCS can achieve their stated impacts on net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without negatively impacting the many services expected from the land and waters of the U.S., especially biodiversity and food production.

These principles represent a consensus of leading organizations with expertise in developing and implementing climate mitigation strategies involving ecosystems and management. In addition, the principles will help avoid specific unintended consequences that could result from deploying NCS. Although the list of principles was developed with U.S. policies and programs in mind, the scope is not limited to U.S. borders, particularly considering that agricultural and forest products have many connections around the world, and that protecting biodiversity is of global concern.

The principles broadly support the inclusion of natural climate solutions that are being formulated by the U.S. government to meet anticipated national targets associated with the Paris Climate Agreement that establishes a global framework to avoid dangerous climate change by limiting warming to less than 2°C. Since it is very unlikely that emissions from fossil fuels can be reduced sufficiently to reach a net zero target by 2050, and since it is becoming necessary to remove some of the carbon dioxide that has already been emitted, “negative emissions” have a significant role to play in limiting warming along with reductions in emissions associated with ecosystem management and land-use change. Land, inland waters, and coastal ecosystems that on balance are now removing about 30% of emissions of carbon dioxide each year have significant potential to continue or even increase this critical function, though it will require careful analysis of options for deploying these natural climate solutions over the next few decades, and monitoring of results which may be affected as impacts of climate change evolve.

The framework underlying these principles includes considerations of time, space, and community. The time dimension recognizes that NCS involve changes in ecosystems and ecosystem management that have impacts that span decades and centuries. The effectiveness of a particular climate solution will vary over these timeframes—some will be effective in the short term, and some in the long term as climate changes and other factors evolve. Likewise, some will be ineffective at times and so the expected benefits as well as co-benefits need to be evaluated now and for the future.

The spatial dimension reflects that ecosystems are highly variable geographically, as are the various factors that influence ecosystems. For example, natural disturbances such as wildfire are much more common and severe in areas where drought and high temperatures are prevalent. Existing management practices are also highly variable, with some regions dominated by agriculture, some by forest management, and some by protection from human-caused disturbances. Potential solutions will be different for these categories, as will the effectiveness of each for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

The community or human dimension is critical because NCS will be implemented by people within specific social and economic contexts. All solutions have consequences that go beyond the goal of reducing greenhouse gases, and people will be affected in different ways. Impacts may be positive such as providing jobs or cooling communities by planting trees near buildings, or negative by increasing the costs of goods and services or impacting specific economic sectors such as agriculture and the forest products industry. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate how the different NCS will affect different communities, over different time frames, and in different regions.

Overview of Principles


1. Natural climate solutions are identified and designed with full consideration of risks from climate extremes, natural disturbances, and socioeconomic events.

Many natural climate solutions will take time to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions, exceptions being reducing deforestation and forest degradation, delaying harvest, and reducing emissions from agricultural soils. If benefits are expected to accrue decades into the future, the solutions must consider that climate and other factors will likely be very different and so the expected benefits may not be as great as predicted by current conditions.

2. Avoid degrading ecosystems that have high carbon stocks or biodiversity value, and restore those that have already been degraded.

The carbon stored in high-carbon ecosystems may take decades to centuries to replace if the stocks are lost. Avoiding the fragmentation or degradation of these ecosystems can result in an immediate reduction in emissions and can help protect biodiversity. When possible, restore degraded land to native vegetation which can improve biodiversity while increasing carbon stocks to levels consistent with the potential of the site.

3. Natural climate solutions are implemented with full engagement of Indigenous Peoples and local communities and work to mitigate inequalities and injustices.

Natural climate solutions should be implemented with full engagement of Indigenous Peoples and local communities in a way that ensures respect for their land, culture, and human rights. The historical legacies and ongoing effects of institutional racism will require particular care to include the knowledge and interests of these communities. When implementing natural climate solutions consultation, participatory engagement, negotiations, and consent should be received.

4. Enhance human welfare and “do no harm.”

Natural climate solutions should aim to generate a net enhancement to human welfare, while doing no harm to impacted stakeholders. If the tradeoffs between the private and public benefits from policy choices are clearly defined and quantified, negative outcomes can be identified and mitigated to the greatest extent possible. Unless natural climate solutions can be demonstrated to have clear overall benefits to society and impacted stakeholders, and private costs mitigated, they are unlikely to be adopted.

5. Practice full system accounting so that all effects on the carbon cycle are assessed, and the contributions of a given natural climate solution can be evaluated.

Assessing the climate impacts of natural climate solutions requires a systems approach because of the connections between agriculture, forests, land use, food and fiber production, and energy production. It is therefore essential to practice full system carbon accounting including the effects of activities on ecosystems and their ability to maintain or increase carbon stocks, as well as impacts on fossil fuel emissions from related economic sectors. Full system accounting should be linked with effective monitoring and reporting.


Alex Rudee (World Resource Institute)
Debbie Hammel and NRDC staff
Dr. Marla Emery
Dr. John Gunn (University of New Hampshire)
Dr. Steven Hamburg (Environmental Defense Fund)

*Reviewer status does not constitute an endorsement.



Doris Duke Charitable Foundation

The research and writing for this report were made possible by the generous support of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation.